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Glossary of Important Financial Terms

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Term Definition
Initial Public Offering (IPO)

An offering of newly created shares to the general investing public. Part of the IPO may also be in the form of placement shares, whereby the new shares are allocated to financial institution or wealthy investors. An IPO is in contrast to the sale of vendor shares, which are shares sold by existing shareholders.


Insider-trading refers to the use of specific market-sensitive information that are not available to the general public, in order to profit from it. For example, company management or its bankers may have gained access to impending news of the acquisition of a company by another. Insider trading is said to occur if the “insider” uses this information to buy shares in the target company, before the news is made public.

Intl Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS

IFRS is the set of standards and framework adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), for presentation of financial results and reports. It is used in many parts of the world, including the European Union, Hong Kong, Australia, Malaysia and Singapore. The Singapore FRS is closely modelled on the IFRS. The main competing standard to the IFRS is the US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).

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